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Anatomy and Physiology


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In This Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy and Physiology

Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology
Positive and Negative Feedback
Positive and Negative Feedback (Quiz 2)

General Orientation to Human Anatomy
No Quiz

The Chemistry of Life
A Biochemical Pathway
Cotransport (Symport and Antiport)
Feedback Inhibition of Biochemical Pathways
How Diffusion Works
How Enzymes Work
How Facilitated Diffusion Works
How Osmosis Works
How the Sodium Potassium Pump Works
Limiting Amino Acids
Protein Denaturation
Proton Pump
Proton Pump (Quiz 2)
Receptors Linked to a Channel Protein
Receptors Linked to a Channel Protein (Quiz 2)
Sodium-Potassium Exchange Pump
Sodium-Potassium Exchange Pump (Quiz 2)
Sodium-Potassium Exchange Pump (Quiz 3)

Cellular Form and Function
Binding Site Saturation
Cell Proliferation Signaling Pathway
Cotransport (Symport and Antiport)
Diffusion Through Cell Membranes
Lysosomes
Mechanism of Action of Lipid-Soluble Messengers
Osmosis
Primary Active Transport
Secondary Active Transport
Signal Transduction by Extracellular Receptors

Genetics and Cellular Function
Addition and Deletion Mutations
Aminoacyl tRNA Synthetase
Bidirectional DNA Replication
Bidirectional DNA Replication (Quiz 2)
Cell Proliferation Signaling Pathway
Control of the Cell Cycle
DNA Replication
DNA Replication (Quiz 2)
DNA Replication (Quiz 3)
DNA Replication Fork
DNA Replication Fork (Quiz 2)
DNA Replication Fork (Quiz 3)
DNA Structure
Hershey and Chase Experiment
How Intracellular Receptors Regulate Gene Transcription
How Nucleotides Are Added in DNA Replication
How Spliceosomes Process RNA
How the Cell Cycle Works
How Translation Works
How Tumor Suppressor Genes Block Cell Division
Meselson and Stahl Experiment
Methyl-directed Mismatch Repair
Mitosis and Cytokinesis
mRNA Synthesis (Transcription)
mRNA Synthesis (Transcription) (Quiz 2)
Mutation by Base Substitution
Proofreading Function of DNA Polymerase
Protein Synthesis
Protein Synthesis (Quiz 2)
Protein Synthesis (Quiz 3)
Protein Synthesis (Quiz 4)
Simple Gene Expression
Slipped-strand Mispairing
Stages of Transcription
Stimulation of Cell Replication
Structural Basis of DNA Replication
Telomerase Function
The Function of Cohesin
Thymine Dimers Formation and Repair
Transcription Complex and Enhancers
Transcription Factors
Translation Elongation
Translation Termination

Histology
No Quiz

The Integumentary System
Thymine Dimers Formation and Repair

Bone Tissue
Bone Growth in Width
Osteoporosis

The Skeletal System
No Quiz

Joints
No Quiz

The Muscular System
No Quiz

Surface Anatomy
No Quiz

Muscular Tissue
Action Potentials and Muscle Contraction
Action Potentials and Muscle Contraction (Quiz 2)
Activation of Contraction in Smooth vs. Skeletal Muscle
Breakdown of ATP and Cross-Bridge Movement During Muscle Contraction
Breakdown of ATP and Cross-Bridge Movement During Muscle Contraction (Quiz 2)
Chemical Synapse
Chemical Synapse (Quiz 2)
Energy Sources for Prolonged Exercise
Function of the Neuromuscular Junction
Function of the Neuromuscular Junction (Quiz 2)
Function of the Neuromuscular Junction (Quiz 3)
Function of the Neuromuscular Junction (Quiz 4)
Length-Tension Relation in Skeletal Muscles
Mechanics of Single Fiber Contraction I
Mechanics of Single Fiber Contraction II
Myofilament Contraction
Protein and Muscle Production
Receptors Linked to a Channel Protein
Receptors Linked to a Channel Protein (Quiz 2)
Sarcomere Contraction
Sodium-Potassium Exchange Pump
Sodium-Potassium Exchange Pump (Quiz 2)
Sodium-Potassium Exchange Pump (Quiz 3)
The Cross-Bridge Cycle
The Nerve Impulse
Transmission Across a Synapse
Voltage-Gated Channels and the Action Potential
Voltage-Gated Channels and the Action Potential (Quiz 2)

Nervous Tissue
Action Potential Propagation in an Unmyelinated Axon
Action Potential Propagation in an Unmyelinated Axon (Quiz 2)
Action Potential Propagation in Myelinated Neurons
Action Potential Propagation in Unmyelinated Neurons
Chemical Synapse
Chemical Synapse (Quiz 2)
Membrane-Bound Receptors, G Proteins, and Ca2+ Channels
Membrane-Bound Receptors, G Proteins, and Ca2+ Channels (Quiz 2)
Membrane-Bound Receptors that Activate G Proteins
Postsynaptic Potentials
Prion Diseases
Second Messenger: cAMP
Second Messengers - The cAMP and Ca++ Pathways
The Nerve Impulse
Transmission Across a Synapse
Voltage-Gated Channels and the Action Potential
Voltage-Gated Channels and the Action Potential (Quiz 2)

The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves
No Quiz

The Brain and Cranial Nerves
No Quiz

Autonomic Nervous System and Visceral Reflexes
No Quiz

Sense Organs
Effect of Sound Waves on Cochlear Structures
Effect of Sound Waves on Cochlear Structures (Quiz 2)

The Endocrine System
Action of Epinephrine on a Liver Cell
Action of Glucocorticoid Hormone
Binding Site Saturation
Hormonal Communication
Intracellular Receptor Model
Mechanism of Action of Lipid-Soluble Messengers
Mechanism of Steroid Hormone Action
Mechanism of Steroid Hormone Action (Quiz 2)
Mechanism of Thyroxine Action
Membrane-Bound Receptors, G Proteins, and Ca2+ Channels
Membrane-Bound Receptors, G Proteins, and Ca2+ Channels (Quiz 2)
Membrane-Bound Receptors that Activate G Proteins
Positive and Negative Feedback
Positive and Negative Feedback (Quiz 2)
Second Messenger: cAMP
Second Messengers - The cAMP and Ca++ Pathways
Signal Amplification
Signal Transduction by Extracellular Receptors

Blood
Hemoglobin Breakdown
Hemoglobin Causes Net Diffusion of Oxygen
Hemolysis and Crenation
Malaria: Life Cycle of Plasmodium

The Circulatory System: The Heart
Action Potentials in Cardiac Muscle Cells
Action Potentials in the Sinoatrial (SA) Node
Baroreceptor Reflex Control of Blood Pressure
Cardiac EC Coupling
Chemoreceptor Reflex Control of Blood Pressure
Conducting System of the Heart
Mechanical Events of the Cardiac Cycle
The Cardiac Cycle
The Cardiac Cycle (Quiz 2)

The Circulatory System: Blood Vessels and Circulation
Arteriolar Radius and Blood Flow
Arteriolar Resistance and Blood Pressure
Baroreceptor Reflex Control of Blood Pressure
Chemoreceptor Reflex Control of Blood Pressure
Fluid Exchange Across the Walls of Capillaries
Gas Exchange During Respiration
Relationship Between Cross-Section and Velocity of Flow
Sphygmomanometry

The Lymphatic and Immune Systems
Activation of Complement
Antibody Diversity
Antigenic Determinants (Epitopes)
Antigen Processing
Antiviral Activity of Interferon
Constructing Vaccines
Constructing Vaccines (Quiz 2)
Cytotoxic (Type II Hypersensitivity)
Cytotoxic T-Cell Activity against Target Cells
Cytotoxic T-Cell Activity Against Target Cells (Quiz 2)
Delayed (Type IV) Hypersensitivity
HIV Replication
HIV Replication (Quiz 2)
How the HIV Infection Cycle Works
IgE Mediated (Type 1) Hypersensitivity
IgE Mediated (Type 1) Hypersensitivity (Quiz 2)
Immune Complex Type 3 Hypersensitivity
Interaction of Antigen Presenting Cells and T-helper Cells
Monoclonal Antibody Production
Monoclonal Antibody Production (Quiz 2)
Phagocytosis
Replication Cycle of a Retrovirus
Superantigens
T-Cell Dependent Antigens
T-Cell Dependent Antigens (Quiz 2)
The Immune Response
Treatment of HIV Infection

The Respiratory System
Alveolar Pressure Changes During Inspiration and Expiration
Alveolar Ventilation and Anatomic Dead Space
Boyle's Law
Changes in the Partial Pressures of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
Changes in the Partial Pressures of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide (Quiz 2)
Gas Exchange During Respiration
Hemoglobin Causes Net Diffusion of Oxygen
Movement of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
The Pleural Membranes

The Urinary System
Basic Renal Processes
Micturition Reflex
Renal Clearance

Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
No Quiz

The Digestive System
Blood Sugar Regulation in Diabetics
Enzyme Action and the Hydrolysis of Sucrose
Hormones and Gasric Secretion
Hydrochloric Acid Production... of the Stomach
Hydrochloric Acid Production... of the Stomach (Quiz 2)
Organs of Digestion
Problems with Sugars
Reflexes in the Colon
Three Phases of Gastric Secretion
Three Phases of Gastric Secretion (Quiz 2)
Water Content of Foods

Nutrition and Metabolism
B Vitamins
Calories in a Sandwich
Children's Food Guide Pyramid
Complementary Proteins
Enzyme Action and the Hydrolysis of Sucrose
Food Guide Pyramid
Limiting Amino Acids
Nutrient Density Comparator
Protein and Muscle Production
Relationship of Nutrient Needs to Age and Gender

The Male Reproductive System
Comparison of Meiosis and Mitosis
Comparison of Meiosis and Mitosis (Quiz 2)
Holliday Model
Horizontal Gene Transfer
How Meiosis Works
Meiosis I
Meiosis II
Meiosis with Crossing Over
Random Orientation of Chromosomes During Meiosis
Spermatogenesis
Spermatogenesis (Quiz 2)
Stages of Meiosis
Unique Features of Meiosis

The Female Reproductive System
Maturation of the Follicle and Oocyte

Human Development
Fetal Development and Risk
X inactivation








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