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Mitosis and Cytokinesis

What is the difference between reproduction and the transmission of genetic information? Reproduction is the production of offspring. At the cellular level the equivalent process is the production of daughter cells. Successful cellular reproduction requires two distinct processes that are often confused. One is the transmission of genetic information in the form of DNA. In order to function and reproduction, each daughter cell must receive DNA from the mother cell. In addition to DNA each daughter cell must receive enough of the components of a cell to function. When the cell divides each daughter cell will need membrane, cytoplasm and organelles. The physical reproduction of the cell is known as cytokinesis. Generally the transmission of genetic information and cell division occur together. In bacteria there are several mechanisms that transfer genetic material between individuals (or between individuals and the environment) independently of cell division.

View the animation below, then complete the quiz to test your knowledge of the concept.






1Which of the following events do NOT occur in prophase of mitosis?
A)DNA condenses to form chromosomes
B)nuclear membrane breaks down
C)nucleolus breaks down
D)chromosomes are replicated
E)mitotic spindle begins to form



2The mitotic spindle fibers attach to chromosomes via special structures termed
A)centrioles.
B)asters.
C)kinetochores.
D)centrosomes.
E)keratins.



3Which of the following statements about microtubules during anaphase is TRUE?
A)those attached to chromosomes elongate, while those that are unattached shorten
B)those attached to chromosomes shorten, while those that are unattached elongate
C)both attached and unattached microtubules shorten
D)both attached and unattached microtubules elongate
E)both attached and unattached microtubules elongate at first and then shorten



4Centromeres divide during metaphase.
A)True
B)False



5Cytokinesis in plant cells occurs by means of a cleavage furrow.
A)True
B)False







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