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Basic Renal Processes

What physical processes remove waste from the blood? Waste material is removed from the blood in the nephrons of the kidney. In each nephron, the blood is forced through a ball of porous capillaries called the glomerulus. Pressure forces most of the fluid, solutes, and smaller suspended material out of the blood and into Bowman’s capsule. Not only is waste removed but also many blood components that are necessary for proper function. Only blood cells and other items too large to pass through the capillary wall are not filtered at all. The non-waste materials leave the nephron and return to the blood through a combination of active transport (ions and nutrients) and passive diffusion (water).

View the animation below, then complete the quiz to test your knowledge of the concept.






1Secretion...
A)occurs when the filtrate passes from the peritubular capillaries back to the nephron tubules.
B)occurs when blood fluids leave the afferent arteriole and enter the Bowman’s capsule.
C)occurs when blood fluids leave the glomerulus and enter the Bowman’s capsule.
D)occurs when the filtrate passes from the nephron tubules back to the efferent arteriole.
E)occurs when the filtrate passes from the nephron tubules back to the peritubular capillaries.



2Filtration...
A)occurs when the filtrate passes from the peritubular capillaries back to the nephron tubules.
B)occurs when blood fluids leave the afferent arteriole and enter the Bowman’s capsule.
C)occurs when blood fluids leave the glomerulus and enter the Bowman’s capsule.
D)occurs when the filtrate passes from the nephron tubules back to the efferent arteriole.
E)occurs when the filtrate passes from the nephron tubules back to the peritubular capillaries.



3Reabsorption...
A)occurs when the filtrate passes from the peritubular capillaries back to the nephron tubules.
B)occurs when blood fluids leave the afferent arteriole and enter the Bowman’s capsule.
C)occurs when blood fluids leave the glomerulus and enter the Bowman’s capsule.
D)occurs when the filtrate passes from the nephron tubules back to the efferent arteriole.
E)occurs when the filtrate passes from the nephron tubules back to the peritubular capillaries.



4Once a substance is separated from the blood supply by the nephron, it is excreted in the urine.
A)True
B)False



5All of the blood that enters the area of the nephron from the renal artery is filtered with each pass.
A)True
B)False







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