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Self Assessment Quiz - Health Outcomes and Quality of Life
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Patient-reported outcomes are receiving increasing attention in the provision of medical care
A)as part of an effort to maximize the net health benefit derived from the use of finite health care resources.
B)because physiologic or laboratory-based measures may change without improving patient functioning and well-being.
C)because of an awareness that evaluating structure and process is not enough for assessing and ensuring quality health care.
D)because there is growing awareness that in certain diseases, quality of life may be the most important health outcome to consider in assessing treatment
E)All the above are true.

According to the ECHO model described by Kozma and associates, clinical outcomes include
A)patient satisfaction.
B)health-related quality of life.
C)medical events (e.g., stroke).
D)direct medical costs.
E)Both b and c are correct.

Health-related quality of life
A)has only one universally accepted definition.
B)is decreasing in importance because of advances in technology.
C)includes the concept of job satisfaction.
D)is considered to be a patient-reported outcome.
E)can be measured in only one standard way.

Which of the following would not be considered a commonly measured dimension of health-related quality of life?
A)Physical health and functioning
B)Psychological health and functioning
C)Social and role functioning
D)Sexual functioning
E)Perceptions of general well-being

The change in the types of diseases experienced over the course of twentieth century involved a transition from
A)predominantly acute diseases (e.g., diphtheria) to chronic diseases (e.g., osteoarthritis).
B)predominantly chronic diseases (e.g., osteoarthritis) to acute diseases (e.g., otitis media).
C)conditions that were often fatal (e.g., infectious diseases) to conditions that are more likely to affect functioning and well-being (e.g., osteoarthritis).
D)None of the above are true.
E)Both a and c are true.

Which of the following is not a possible outcome associated with pharmacotherapy?
A)Quality of life is improved.
B)Quality of life is actively maintained.
C)Quality of life decreases.
D)Quality of life remains unaffected.
E)All the above are possible quality-of-life outcomes.

Generic measures of health-related quality of life are not intended to
A)be applicable across all diseases or conditions .
B)replace disease-specific instruments in all situations.
C)be applicable across different medical interventions.
D)be applicable across a wide variety of populations.

The following are examples of preference-based measures of health-related quality of life except
E)All the above are preference-based measures.

The following statements are true about quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) except
A)QALYs can result from increasing length of life.
B)QALYs can result from enhancing quality of life.
C)QALYs gained is the most common outcome measure in cost-utility analysis.
D)QALYs can only result from increases in both length and quality of life.

The reliability of a health-related quality of life measure refers to
A)the degree to which it is measuring what it is intended to measure.
B)its responsiveness or sensitivity to change.
C)the extent to which it gives consistent or accurate results.
D)its ability to provide cross-cultural equivalence.
E)All the above are true.

The validity of a health-related quality of life measure is
A)never absolutely proven.
B)the degree to which one can assign qualitative meaning to an instrument's quantitative scores.
C)only necessary when comparing two competing alternatives in a randomized clinical trial.
D)the extent to which it gives consistent or accurate results.
E)its ability to provide cross-cultural equivalence.

In regard to the SF-36, the following statements are true except
A)it is considered a health profile.
B)it is a disease-specific instrument.
C)there is limited evidence supporting its validity.
D)data from it can produce mental and physical component summary scores.
E)it is one of the most commonly used health-related quality-of-life instruments

Health-related quality of life is most important in helping to determine the value of pharmacotherapy in which of the following situations?
A)Chronic disease
B)Curative treatments
C)Acute conditions
D)Palliative treatments
E)Both a and d are correct.

In the assessment of health-related quality of life, respondent burden
A)refers to the time and energy required of respondents to complete an instrument.
B)can be lessened by using instruments that are as brief as possible.
C)refers to the time and energy required of persons administering an instrument.
D)All the above are true.
E)Only a and b are true.

The most commonly used techniques for the direct measurement of health state preferences include
A)normal gamble.
B)quality tradeoff.
C)time tradeoff.
D)All the above are true.
E)Only a and c are direct measurement techniques.

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